## Thursday, December 21, 2017

### Getting Into RE

This has been done before, but I find myself producing this information repeatedly, so what the hell, here's a blog article about it: how to get started in reverse engineering (RE). You'll need a VM (VirtualBox is free and works for me).

I'll first promote the resources that I used because that's what worked for me. Then I'll talk about how to get practice via a certain CTF, and share some resources that I believe have been useful to others.

### PMA

That stands for Practical Malware Analysis. This book is already showing its age, but I still think it is the best all-in-one resource to learn reverse engineering fundamentals.

The approach I took that helped me really absorb the material was:
1. Read the book through and just absorb it;
2. Go back through for the labs, reviewing each chapter as necessary;
3. When a lab takes more than a certain time (start with 30 minutes), use the back of the book for the answer;
4. If you don't see the connection between what you've seen so far and the answer in the back of the book, read the extended answer to see how they got that; and,
5. Always read the extended answer to glean any techniques that might be more efficient than the road you took.
It takes discipline to remember that you have limited time and you need to move through the labs if you are to learn and improve. If you're banging your head into the wall, you're that much closer to giving up, which is only okay if you have determined that this is simply not interesting to you anymore.

If you don't know assembly language well and you think it is hindering your ability to move through PMA, then suspend that process and take some time with...

### x86 Assembly Language

I will suggest two main roads for learning x86 (and x64) assembly language, and a couple of other references to support them. The first and most accessible main resource is the one that a lot of my colleagues have said helped them: http://opensecuritytraining.info/

A lot of reverse engineers, both aspiring and established, say that Xeno's courses are where they learned assembly language, and it went really well for them, so with it being available online for free, I have to put it out there.

As for myself, my main resource for learning x86 assembly language was Richard Blum's book, Professional Assembly Language Programming. The book teaches with GNU tools, so it uses the AT&T syntax which is largely unpopular with the RE crowd, but on the upside, the GNU tools are superlatively easy to acquire and use on most Linux distributions.

Aside from those, the first chapter (x86/x64) of Practical Reverse Engineering reinforced and clarified some essential concepts for me.

Finally, for the definitive RTFM experience, Volume 2 of Intel's processor manuals contains the instruction set reference, which you can use to look up weird instructions you come across. If you're using IDA Pro, there is also an auto-comment mode in IDA Pro that may help remind you if you are just getting started.

### Debugging

Tarik Soulami's book Inside Windows Debugging is an outstanding read about not just WinDbg but Windows internals. I can't recommend it emphatically enough.

### FLARE-On Challenges

If you're done with PMA and ready for some practice, the FLARE-On Challenge binaries archived at http://flare-on.com/ pose a unique training opportunity for two reasons: first, because they deliberately mimic real malware; and second, because they are all accompanied by solution write-ups on fireeye.com:
When used for training, I suggest approaching these incrementally: attack level 1 of each, level 2 of each, level 3 of each, in turn. I also suggest treating them like the PMA labs: if you exceed a certain duration analyzing them, peek at the solution write-up and see if that gives you a shove in the right direction.

### Things I Did That You Don't Have To

The first book I read about RE-related things was actually not PMA; it was The Shellcoder's Handbook, 1st Edition (2nd Edition is here). This was not a gentle introduction. But looking back, it taught me a lot of things that I refer back to very frequently. So maybe it was more formative for me than I even remember.

I also continue to get a lot out of reading Kyle Loudon's book, Mastering Algorithms in C. The book talks about all those things I consider to be magic, especially crypto and compression.

### Other Resources

See the ellipsis? I'm going to tack things onto this article as I learn about them. If you know of one, hollar. It's easy for me to remember what helped ME, but I could use a reminder of what others have found helpful.

## Friday, November 3, 2017

### x86 Assembly Language Brush-Up

A buddy of mine is reviewing x86 assembly, so I thought I would write a brief primer on common x86 assembly language instructions. If you aren't yet familiar with the x86 register file, check out Remember the Registers first for a super-quick overview.

On a side-note, I laughed when I looked back at that other article, because it starts the same way: "oh, hey, a friend is about to learn x86 assembly, so I thought I would write this quick article!" So I guess the lesson here is: Parents, talk to your kids about assembly language... or else their friends will! }:-)

With no further ado, I'll get this thing moving with...

## mov

Much of reverse engineering entails following the flow of data backward and forward as it moves through registers and memory. The mov instruction is the most commonly used instruction and the instruction you'll most often have to read to know where data is going.

## lea

lea stands for load effective address. The lea instruction is supposed to give you a pointer to something rather than dereferencing the pointer and giving you the actual data. In reality, though, it just computes the sum or other expression in the square brackets and moves it to the specified location. Take, for example, the following instruction:

lea eax, [ebp-218h]

The eax register in this case will receive ebp minus 0x218, which is the address of some local variable. Compare this with:

mov eax, [ebp-218h]

Which actually dereferences ebp-0x218 to retrieve the contents of that local variable in the function stack frame and puts that value into eax.

Since the lea instruction in all reality just computes the value of the expression in the brackets, it can also be used to evaluate complex expressions involving multiplication and addition. If you see some values that can't possibly be addresses getting used with the lea instruction, you might be right. The program may be merely computing a value rather than working with memory addresses.

## push

Data goes on the stack, usually for a function call.

Some compilers will also emit code to push an immediate operand (a constant value, e.g. 0) and then pop it to a register, like this:

push 4 ; Put the number 4 on the stack
pop eax ; The number 4 winds up in eax

## call

The processor pushes the address of the next instruction and transfers control to a procedure of the programmer's choosing. This is kind of equivalent to lines 3-5 below:

1   push arg2               ; Push function arguments as normal
2   push arg1
3   push offset L_nextinstr ; Save the address of the next instruction on the stack
4   jmp procedure           ; Transfer control
5 L_nextinstr:
6   test eax, eax           ; Resume normal stuff like checking return value
7

## jmp

This is another way to transfer control, usually within a procedure, but sometimes to a procedure.

## retn N

When you see a return instruction followed by a number, the function is cleaning up its own stack, which means it is stdcall (the standard calling convention for Microsoft Win32 APIs).

I mention this instruction now because it is used in the other calling convention, cdecl, to efficiently forget about function parameters pushed on the stack:

Obviously its usual use is plain arithmetic, but when it is used with the stack pointer as above, you know the preceding function call was to a cdecl function.

## cmp

Compare two operands: Subtract the second operand from the first operand and set EFLAGS as if this were an arithmetic subtraction instruction.

## test

Logical comparison. From Intel's manual: "Computes the bit-wise logical AND of first operand... and the second operand... and sets [EFLAGS accordingly]."

## More

If you're unsure about what an instruction does, RTFM: http://www.intel.com/products/processor/manuals/

Intel's manuals are the definitive guide to how Intel's processors parse and execute instructions. They are organized as follows:

Volume 1: Basic Architecture
Volume 2: Instruction Set Reference
Volume 3: System Programming Guide

If you wonder about a particular instruction, you'll find it in volume 2 (Instruction Set Reference). If you want to learn about the x86 execution environment, volume 1 (Basic Architecture) is your friend. And if you're writing a bootloader, an operating system, or a hypervisor, volume 3 (System Programming Guide) is for you.

## Misc

If you're interested in tabulating the most common instructions using IDAPython, here is a snippet.

from collections import defaultdict

def _for_each_instr(callback, outputs=None, parms=None):
"""Do <callback> for each instruction.

Call callback() providing fva, chunk start va, instr addr, and outputs/
parameters.
"""
for fva in Functions():
for (va_start, va_end) in Chunks(fva):

def enum_mnemonics():
mnems = defaultdict(int)
def enum_mnemonics_callback(fva, chunkva, head, unused1, unused2):

_for_each_instr(enum_mnemonics_callback)

mnems_sorted = sorted(mnems.iteritems(), key=lambda(k,v):v, reverse=True)

return mnems_sorted

## Wednesday, October 4, 2017

### Free Shortcuts in IDA Pro

I'm tired of reassigning everything to the same hotkey in IDA Pro because I don't know which hotkeys are free. Here are the IDA Pro keyboard shortcuts I know of that aren't in use in IDA Pro so far. Only one- and two-key shortcuts are included. I have omitted shortcuts used by BinDiff and flare-ida, because I don't want to collide with those.

• ` (backtick)
• , (comma)
• <>{}[] (left and right angle bracket, brace, and square bracket)
• Most (but not all) of the top row: !@#$%^&*()+= • I • J • Alt+F4,F5, and F8 • Alt+E, F, N, O, U, V, W, Z • Ctrl+0, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 • Ctrl+H • Ctrl+Y • Shift+A-C • Shift+F-O • Shift+Q • Shift+S-Z I got these by visiting Options -> Shortcuts... in a recent version of IDA Pro. If you notice any others, or notable collisions, please comment or message and I will update. ## Thursday, September 28, 2017 ### Two Great Tastes: IDA + WinDbg Setting up remote debugging with IDA+WinDbg can be difficult when it doesn't work right off the bat, because the errors don't jog the right thought process for you to fix the setup and get it working. This causes some people to walk away from the whole thing, which is unfortunate. This setup is SOOOOO useful that it's worth slogging through the pain to get it working. The value of having graph view and IDA's annotation capabilities on-hand while debugging cannot be overstated. Here, I'll emphasize one thing that could stand to be better emphasized in Hex-Rays' own documentation: you have to be using the same version of WinDbg on each side. And I'll indicate some ways to isolate end-to-end (E2E) issues. Note that the system with IDA Pro on it is referred to here as the analysis system (it's where you do your analysis of the code), and the system where you run malware is referred to as the target system. ## Pointers • Resolve any end-to-end (E2E) issues first (firewalls, networking, etc.) • Lock IDA Pro into using the same version of WinDbg as is on your target system • Use WinDbg itself to verify that there are no E2E issues ## Algorithm This is exactly how to set up a remote debugging setup with IDA Pro and WinDbg. Here are the steps: 1. Both systems: Ensure your analysis and target machines can access each other over the network 1. If they are VMs, you may need to adjust them to ensure they are both host-only 2. You might need to mess with firewall settings 3. If you are using FakeNet-NG, you might need to add an exception for dbgsrv.exe 2. Target system: Locate (install, if necessary) WinDbg on your target system. 3. Target -> Analysis system: If you haven't installed the same version of WinDbg to both systems, then simply copy the entire x86 directory where you located WinDbg on the target system, onto your analysis system. It doesn't matter where you place this. 4. Analysis system: Edit ida.cfg to set DBGTOOLS to point to the x86 directory 1. Use double backslashes, e.g. DBGTOOLS = "C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Windows Kits\\10\\Debuggers\\x86\\"; 5. Target system: Start the WinDbg debug server 1. "C:\path\to\dbgsrv.exe" -t tcp:port=9999 6. Analysis system: Test by trying to connect remotely with WinDbg itself - if this doesn't work, then you've got end-to-end issues to resolve before IDA will work 7. Analysis system: configure your IDB to use WinDbg: 1. Debugger -> Switch debugger... (select Windbg debugger and click OK) 2. Debugger -> Options... 1. Application: path\on\your\target\system\to\binary.exe 2. Input file: path\on\your\target\system\to\binary.exe 3. Directory: path\on\your\target\system\to 4. Parameters: command-line arguments you want passed to the malware (if any) 5. Connection string: tcp:server=TARGETSYSTEMNAME,port=9999 6. Click OK 8. Analysis system: Click on an instruction and hit F4 to "run to" that instruction, or set a breakpoint and strike F9 9. Disregard warnings as applicable ;-) ## Troubleshooting You may want to audit your user and system PATH environment variables to ensure that they don't include the x86 directory of a conflicting version of WinDbg, or the x64 directory for that matter. If you get "Could not initialize WinDbg engine 0x7f / The specified procedure could not be found... You might try adding the path to that x86 directory to your system path and closing/reopening IDA. I also find that certain Python scripts seem to cause IDA Pro to emit this error, so you might also try closing/reopening IDA, initiating your debug session, and only THEN loading any ancillary IDAPython scripts you were using. ## Miscellany As of 2011, Hex-Rays indicated that this would not work with the x64 tools. ## Saturday, August 19, 2017 ### Done to Death I saw this tweet from @redteamwrangler today: This question is a pretty easy fallback for interviewers and it might be getting a little old for us. But it set me to thinking about how tediously I could answer this without using the Internet or any reference materials on my machine. Some of these details might be a little off or just downright wrong, but I'll display my ignorance. It was a fun exercise since it isn't in the context of any actual interview :-) What happens when you type www.google.com into a browser and press return? Supposing you're using Internet Explorer for Windows on an wired (Ethernet) connection: • 8259a or emulated 8259a keyboard controller emits some scancodes • Keyboard interrupt is sent to the CPU • Interrupt service routine acknowledges interrupt, potentially moves one or more scancodes into a buffer • Or a delayed procedure call (DPC) does • ntoskrnl/win32k determine which thread corresponds to the foreground window and deliver a series of window messages of type WM_KEYDOWN/WM_KEYUP ending with one having virtual key code VK_ENTER • Window procedure for the browser URL bar (which is a window object) is called with a window message of type WM_KEYUP with virtual key code VK_ENTER • Window procedure has a switch statement / jmp table in it that accounts for this particular window message (WM_KEYUP) and maybe a sub-case for VK_ENTER • Probably takes the accumulated buffer so far (L"www.google.com") and passes it to a function • Probably uses a library like WinInet to do the real stuff • Probably calls InternetOpen() to get a handle of type HINTERNET • Probably calls InternetOpenUrlW() or HttpSomethingSomething() to get another HINTERNET handle • Probably reads the registry or uses a cached value for the HTTP User-Agent field that it provides here • Probably uses WinSock2 for TCP • Probably calls ws2_32!WSAStartup() if it hasn't been called yet • Checks proxy settings for the user and optionally establishes a connection with the corresponding hostname and implements HTTP proxy requests instead of direct HTTP requests • Parses the URL for the hostname, protocol scheme, any explicit port specification, URI, query parameters, etc. • Probably uses urlmon!InternetCrackUrlW() for this (or is that in wininet? I think it's in urlmon) • If no protocol scheme is specified, uses http:// which has a default port of 80 • If https:// is specified, a default port of 443 • Issues a DNS A (IPv4 address) request and/or AAAA (IPv6 address) request for the name • Probably calls ws2_32!gethostbyname() to do this • Thread consults DNS resolver cache service (if running) for name, probably via IPC • DNS resolver cache either returns the name or... • Probably uses dnsapi.dll which exports some function that... • Checks DNS configuration (probably the registry) to get primary, secondary, tertiary, etc. DNS servers • Calls ws2_32!inet_aton() to convert human-readable configuration to IPv4 or IPv6 addresses • Creates a socket object via ws2_32!socket() • Creates an in_addr object to communicate with the DNS server • Uses ws2_32!sendto() to use AF_INET/IPPROTO_UDP connectionlessly querying the server • Network layer (hmm, getting hand wavy) consults routing table to determine what interface packet should go through and whether it must visit a gateway • Network card device driver creates and fills out an object that the kernel uses to describe network datagrams (packets) • Network card device driver initiates I/O request with NIC via PCI registers or other hardware interface to provide datagram to be transmitted • NIC takes the medium and transmits Ethernet frames bearing the octets that were given to it • If another host transmits at the same time, the two hosts use the binary exponential backoff algorithm to wait until the medium is clear • A router is likely the gateway; it accepts the packets and creates new packets to send across one or more other networks until the DNS server receives them • DNS server UDP stack handles incoming packet, provides it to UDP-based DNS service e.g. bind which is bound to port 53 • Bind parses the packets, potentially forwards the request if the desired names are not in its zone file, and returns the response • The DNS resolver cache service receives and parses DNS reply/replies and returns the answer to the DNS client • If the DNS resolver cache service wasn't running, ws2_32!gethostbyname() probably does most of this itself • Since you only typed "www.google.com", it's plaintext HTTP on the default port, so 80 • Establishes a TCP connection with the resulting host number and port • ws2_32!socket() to get a socket object • ws2_32!connect() with AF_INET and IPPROTO_TCP to connect • tcpip.sys is probably involved here • Again the network card and Ethernet medium stuff • TCP three-way handshake, window negotiation, etc. • The client sends a SYN TCP segment • The server returns a SYN,ACK TCP segment • The client returns an ACK TCP segment • TCP data transmission • The client sends a SYN,PSH TCP segment pushing data • Something like "GET / HTTP/1.1\nHost: www.google.com\nUser-Agent: ..." • Google's web server does some thinking and returns a response • The client receives a 3xx redirect response and gets directed to go to https://www.google.com/ • Uses Microsoft schannel (secure channel) library to negotiate ciphers, parse the server's security certificate, and transmit data over TLS • Starts with ClientHello message, ServerHello, etc. • Obtains HTTP response, something like "HTTP 200 OK\n..." with some HTML in the HTTP body • HTML links to images, maybe JavaScript, etc., resulting in Cross-Origin (CORS) processing and follow-on requests • Invokes the JScript scripting engine for JScript and rendering engine to display the content • Uses graphics primitives and likely renders into a buffer that it furnishes to win32k.sys through GDI calls • GDI manages framebuffer of all windows including the foreground window • Monitor dispays the framebuffer • Photons fly into your eyes • Optic nerve and brain adjust for upside-down image arriving at retina • Person realizes then went to Google and says, "crap, I meant to go to Bing." Orrrrrr maybe not, haha. If I had more time, I'd draw this out a little more, but I had to quit eventually. And the more I do this, the more I bump into all the things I don't know. A couple things I'd like to know more about: • What does "network layer" mean on Windows? I could use ETW with syscall stackwalking enabled to follow the ws2_32!connect() call into the kernel, or Windows Internals might just tell me. • What kernel object represents a packet in the Windows kernel? A packet buffer? I forgot :-( • How does the networking stack give a packet to the NIC to transmit it? My device driver fu is ageing. ## Sunday, April 23, 2017 ### So, de beency bouncy burger, eh? A colleague found this decoder called CyberChef, which I wish to bookmark and share with you. You may find it useful, too. I hear it can be downloaded as a standalone web page if you wish to audit it and then use it privately for opsec reasons, offline analysis, etc. Børk, børk, børk! ### Truthful ProgrammEEng In this article I'll share how to approach complex logic problems by borrowing from the Electrical Engineering (EE) discipline. I'll discuss how I've used techniques from digital logic circuit design to write efficient and accurate code for hypervisor startup and for packet redirection. This approach can reduce unnecessary nested/multiple conditional statements down to a one-liner. It applies to software engineering scenarios when you can express your problem in terms of a set of strictly Boolean (true/false) conditions. If you find yourself contemplating a tangled web of conditional (if/else) code or you find it difficult to understand what conditions contribute to the decision you want your software to make, take a step back and consider applying this technique from digital logic circuit design. If nothing else, the first three or five steps will get you on the right track to write the correct conditional logic (in if/else style) to solve your problem. If you can carry this process to its conclusion, then you can arrive at the most optimized one-liner to solve your logic problem. It consists of the following steps: 1. Figure out what Boolean (true/false) conditions are necessary to the decision at hand 2. Define a truth table that specifies all the possible conditions 3. Mark which conditions you want to yield in a TRUE result 4. Turn the TRUE cases (EEs call these minterms) into logical expressions 5. Logical-OR those expressions together to render a decision (EEs call this the canonical sum-of-products, or CSOP, logic function) 6. Simplify if possible Here's a hypervisor programming example followed by a network filtering example to demonstrate the process. ## Starting a VT-x Hypervisor I needed to write startup code for a tiny hypervisor project using Intel Virtualization Technology Extensions (VT-x). I knew nothing about VT-x, but I did know that Intel documented the corresponding VMX instruction set and all its requirements in their processor manual, so I started there. Most of the publicly available code I could get my hands on seemed to specifically check one-off control flags to check if it was okay to enter VMX root operation, ignoring the exact specifications that Intel provided in more modern documentation. I decided to implement my own check based on the data sheet. The Intel manual describes some requirements for control registers CR0 and CR4 to allow the VMXON instruction to work. Here is some not-very-succinct text from the Intel manual (in case this makes your eyes bleed, I'll provide a more succinct summary next):  Clear as mud. In summary, there is a FIXED0 and a FIXED1 model-specific register (MSR) for CR0, and another pair of these for CR4. The most important part of the text above is the last sentence starting with "Thus, each bit...". This amounts to the following possible values of FIXED0:FIXED1 along with their corresponding meaning:  F0 F1 CR must be 0 0 fixed to 0 1 1 fixed to 1 0 1 don't care Notice that one case is missing from Intel's description:$F0:F1 = 10$. When we create a truth table including$CR$as an input, this will amount to two missing / don't-care cases (one for$CR=0$and another for$CR=1$). So, expanding this out to take into account the two possible values of any bit in the control register we are checking, we have the following truth table for the possible values of$F0:F1$and$CR$:  F0 F1 CR Invalid 0 0 0 FALSE 0 0 1 TRUE (control register bit should be 0 but is 1) 1 1 0 TRUE (control register bit should be 1 but is 0) 1 1 1 FALSE 0 1 0 FALSE 0 1 1 FALSE Since there are two cases where a given control register bit can be in an invalid state, that means there are two logical cases, or minterms, either of which should result in a verdict of true (i.e. it is true that the control register is in an invalid state). Here's the same table from above, but formatted a little bit more like a truth table, with minterms called out.  F0 F1 CR Invalid Minterms 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1$\overline{F0}\cdot\overline{F1}\cdot CR$1 1 0 1$F0 \cdot F1 \cdot \overline{CR}$1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 This amounts to the following sum of products logic function: $$Invalid(F0,F1,CR)=\overline{F0} \cdot \overline{F1} \cdot CR+F0 \cdot F1 \cdot \overline{CR}$$ Boolean algebra tells us that what is true for one bit in a bit vector is true for all bits. So, in C code, each negated variable (e.g.$\overline{F0}$) amounts to inverting all the bits in the integer. So, the C code for this would look like: int is_invalid(int fixed0, int fixed1, int cr) { return ((~fixed0 & ~fixed1 & cr) | (fixed0 & fixed1 & ~cr)); } Boolean algebraic simplification can be applied to optimize this function to result in fewer logical operators, and fewer instruction opcodes emitted by the compiler. Optimization is left as an exercise for the student (hint: XOR is involved) ;-) ## Redirecting Network Traffic More recently, I've been writing logic for the Linux Diverter in FakeNet-NG. This project is the successor to the original FakeNet tool distributed by Siko and Tank to let people simulate a network in a single virtual machine. The NG version was originally developed to make it possible to use FakeNet on newer versions of Windows, but it would be nice for it to work on Linux, too. So, I am writing a Linux "Diverter", which is a component that manages how packets are redirected and manipulated to simulate the network. This is a really fun project in which I'm using python-netfilterqueue to catch and redirect packets so we can observe traffic sent to any port in the system, even ports where no service is currently bound. The specification for the Linux Diverter includes redirecting traffic sent to unbound ports into a single listener (similar to the INetSim dummy listener). We want the Linux version of FakeNet-NG to be used in two modes: • SingleHost: the malware and the network simulation tool are running on the same machine, like the legacy version of FakeNet. • MultiHost: the malware and the network simulation tool are running on different machines, like INetSim. The conditions for whether a packet must be redirected boil down to a logic function of four inputs: • (A) Is the source address local? • (B) Is the destination address local? • (C) Is the source port bound by a FakeNet-NG listener? • (D) Is the destination port bound by a FakeNet-NG listener? The criteria for changing the destination port of a packet are as follows: 1. When using FakeNet-NG in MultiHost mode (like INetSim), if a foreign host is trying to talk to us or any other host, ensure that unbound ports get redirected to a listener. 2. When using FakeNet-NG in SingleHost mode (like legacy FakeNet), ensure outbound destination packets are redirected except when the packet is a response from a FakeNet-NG listener (in other words, the packet originated from a bound port). The truth table for a decision function that redirects traffic destined for local, unbound ports to a single dummy listener in both SingleHost and MultiHost scenarios is as follows, with local IPs and bound ports in bold:  Sixteen cases Here, we translated all the different human-comprehensible conditions like "it's coming from a foreign host, don't care what port, and it's arriving at the local host to an unbound port" into a set of Boolean conditions that can be either true (1) or false (0). It's convenient to use letters like A, B, C, and D to represent the inputs (see the first row of the table above). The minterms of this function are the cases when it returns true, namely: 1.$\overline{A} \cdot \overline{B} \cdot \overline{C} \cdot \overline{D}$2.$\overline{A} \cdot \overline{B} \cdot C \cdot \overline{D}$3.$\overline{A} \cdot B \cdot \overline{C} \cdot \overline{D}$4.$\overline{A} \cdot B \cdot C \cdot \overline{D}$5.$A \cdot \overline{B} \cdot \overline{C} \cdot \overline{D}$6.$A \cdot B \cdot \overline{C} \cdot \overline{D}$We can see that a few terms can be simplified, such as (1) and (2). Since A, B, and D are false and C can be either true or false, these two really amount to A' B' D'. We can do this to arrive at a fairly simple function of these three disjunctive terms: •$\overline{A} \cdot \overline{B} \cdot \overline{D}$•$\overline{A} \cdot B \cdot \overline{D}$•$A \cdot \overline{C} \cdot \overline{D}$From there, you can just get rid of B and collapse the first two cases into one: •$\overline{A} \cdot \overline{D}$•$A \cdot \overline{C} \cdot \overline{D}$And from there, you can take one step further by looking more closely at the truth table to find the optimal logic. But there are six minterms here, so it might be time to bust out a more powerful tool: the ol' Karnaugh map. A K-map allows you to visually locate all the adjacent groups (pairs, quads, etc.) of logical "yes" outputs and arrive at the simplest possible logic function to yield the desired output. If you're not familiar, you should definitely check this out. Here's the K-map for our logic function:  Short and sweet: two disjunctive terms in three variables The K-map here has only two groups of adjacent minterms: those that occur when$A$and$D$are zero, and those that occur when$C$and$D$are zero. This results in two disjunctive terms, each requiring only two input variables apiece (three in total): •$\overline{A} \cdot \overline{D}$•$\overline{C} \cdot \overline{D}$So, the minimal sum of products logic function would be: $$R(A, B, C, D) = \overline{A}\overline{D}+\overline{C}\overline{D}$$ Or, in Python: return ((not src_local and not dport_bound) or (not sport_bound and not dport_bound)) ## Done and done. The next time you find yourself rolling around in freaky nested conditionals and arriving at the wrong logic, try approaching it the way an electrical engineer would: express the problem in terms of a set of Boolean conditions and then figure out how you want each case to go. If you want the simplest result, you can use Boolean algebra or learn to use a K-map to handle the rest. But even if you stop at the truth table, at least this process will help you sort out logic that you might otherwise be confused about and ensure that you know all the test cases you'll need to include to properly test your code. ### MathJax I fixed MathJax for mobile on my blog. I also made it retrieve the scripts via cloudflare over https rather than in the plain from mathjax.org, in case any of my readers live in repressive regimes that punish people for reading beautifully rendered equations. This might be useful to other blogger.commers who like LaTeX/MathJax and want to see it render on the mobile version of their blog: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/42592013/blog-with-mathjax-seen-on-a-cellphone Okay. Carry on. ## Saturday, April 22, 2017 ### Chasing Heisenbugs: Troubleshooting Frustratingly Unresponsive Systems I did some work in January 2016 on automated performance profiling and diagnosis. As @arvanaghi pointed out, this can be useful for investigating observables resulting from potentially malicious activity. So, I'm figuring out where I left off by turning my documentation into a blog post. What I wrote is pretty stuffy, but since I am sharing it in blog format, I will take some artistic license here and there. Without further ado, I present to you:  I'm just going to paste the whole thing here and draw emoticons on it ## Scope Several challenges make performance profiling and diagnosis of deployed applications a difficult task: • Difficulty reproducing intermittent issues • Investigation inhibited by user interface latency (UI) due to resource consumption • Unavailability of appropriate diagnostic tools on user machines • Inability of laypeople to execute technically detailed diagnostic tasks • Unavailability of live artifacts in cases of dead memory dump analysis My studies have included two following types of disruptive resource utilization: • User interface latency due to prolonged high CPU utilization • User interface latency due to prolonged high I/O utilization I'll just be talking about CPU here. Where applicable, this article will primarily discuss automated means for solving the above problems. Tools can be configured to trigger only when issues appear that are specific to the software and issues that the diagnostic software is meant to address. Where feasible, I will share partial software specifications, rapidly prototyped proofs of concept (PoCs), empirical results, and discussion of considerations relevant to production environments. ## Prolonged High CPU Utilization Automated diagnostics in general can be divided into two classes: (1) those that are meant to identify conditions of interest (e.g. high CPU utilization); and (2) those that are meant to collect diagnostic information relevant to that condition. Each is treated subsequently. ### Identifying Conditions of Interest For purposes of this discussion, two classes of CPU utilization will be used: single-CPU percent utilization and system-wide percent CPU utilization. Single-CPU percent utilization is defined to be the percent time spent in both user and kernel mode (Equation 1); system-wide CPU utilization is defined to be the same figure, divided by the number of CPUs in the system (Equation 2). For example, if a process uses 100% of a single logical CPU in a four-CPU system, its system-wide CPU utilization is 25%. System-wide CPU utilization is the figure that is displayed by applications such as taskmgr.exe and tasklist.exe. $$u_1=\frac{\Delta t_{user} + \Delta t_{kernel}}{\Delta t}$$ (Eq. 1) $$u_2=\frac{u_1}{n_{cpus}}$$ (Eq. 2) High CPU utilization can now be defined from the perspective of user experience. Single-threaded applications will only be capable of consuming <100% of the CPU time on a single CPU (e.g. on a two-CPU system, <50% of system CPU resources). Multi-threaded applications have a much higher potential impact on whole-system CPU utilization because they can create enough CPU-intensive threads to run all logical CPUs at 100%. For purposes of this article, 85% CPU system-wide CPU utilization or greater will constitute high CPU utilization. As for prolonged high CPU utilization, that is a subjective matter. From a user experience perspective, this can vary depending upon the user. For purposes of this article, high CPU utilization lasting 5 seconds or greater will be considered to be prolonged high CPU utilization. In practice, engineers might also need to consider how to classify and measure spikes in CPU utilization that occur frequently but for a shorter time than might constitute "prolonged" high CPU utilization; however, these considerations are left out of the scope of this article. I've implemented a Windows PoC (trigger.cpp) to assess the percent CPU utilization (both single-CPU and system-wide) for a given process. I don't know of any APIs for process-wide or thread-specific CPU utilization, but Windows does expose the GetProcessTimes() API which can be used to determine how much time a process or thread has spent executing in user and kernel space over its life. I've used this to measure the change in kernel and user execution times versus the progression of real time as measured using the combination of the QueryPerformanceCounter() and QueryPerformanceFrequency() functions. Figure 1 shows the PoC in operation providing processor utilization updates that closely track the output of Windows Task Manager. The legacy SysInternals' CPUSTRES.EXE tool was used to exercise the PoC.  Fig. 1: CPU utilization tool There's one more thing to think about. If a diagnostic utility is executed indefinitely, it would be nice to make it consolidate successive distinct CPU utilization events into a single diagnostic event. For example, the CPU utilization graph in Figure 1 below depicts a single high-CPU event lasting from$t=50s$through$t=170s$. Although there are two dips in utilization around$t=110s$and$t=150s\$, this would likely be considered a single high-CPU event from both an engineering and a user experience perspective. Therefore, rather than terminating and restarting monitoring to record two events, a more coherent view might be obtained by recording a single event.

 Fig. 2: Single high CPU utilization event with two short dips

A dip in utilization might also represent a transition from one phase of high CPU utilization to another, in which the target process performs markedly different activities than prior to the dip. This information can be preserved within a single diagnostic event for later identification provided that sufficiently robust data are collected.

One way to prevent continual collection of instantaneous events and to coalesce temporally connected events together is to define a finite state machine that implements hysteresis. Thresholds can be defined and adhered to in order to satisfy both the definition of "prolonged" high CPU utilization and the requirement that diagnostic information is not collected multiple times for a single "event". Such a state machine could facilitate a delay before diagnostics are terminated and launched again, which can in turn prevent the processing, storage, and/or transmission of excessive diagnostic reports representing a single event. Figure 3 depicts a finite state machine (FSM) for determining when to initiate and terminate diagnostic information collection.

 Fig. 3: It's an FSM. Barely.

The state machine in Figure 3 above would be evaluated every time diagnostic information is sampled, and would operate as follows:
1. The machine begins in the Normal state.
2. Normal state is promoted to High CPU at any iteration when CPU utilization exceeds the threshold (85% for purposes of this article).
3. When the state is High CPU, it can advance to Diagnosis or regress to Normal, as follows:
1. If CPU utilization returns below a threshold before the threshold number of seconds have elapsed, then this does not qualify as a "prolonged" high CPU utilization event, and state is demoted to Normal;
2. If CPU utilization remains above the threshold utilization value for the threshold number of seconds, then diagnostics are initiated and state is promoted to Diagnosis.
4. The Diagnosis state is used in combination with the Normal-Wait state to avoid continually repeating the diagnostic process over short periods. When the state is Diagnosis, it can either advance to Normal-Wait, or remain at Diagnosis. The condition for advancing to Normal-Wait is realized when CPU utilization for the target process falls below the threshold value.
5. When the state is Normal-Wait, the next transition can be either a regression to Diagnosis, no change, or an advance back to the Normal state:
1. If the CPU utilization of the target process returns to high utilization before the time threshold expires, the threshold is reset and the state regresses to Diagnosis. In this case, diagnostic information collection continues.
2. If CPU utilization remains low but the threshold duration has not elapsed, the state machine remain in Normal-Wait.
3. If the CPU utilization of the target process remains below the threshold value for the threshold duration, then diagnostics are terminated, the state transitions back to Normal, and the machine can return to a state in which it may again consider escalating to further diagnostics of subsequent events.
The accuracy of this machine in identifying the correct conditions to initiate and terminate diagnostic information collection could be improved by incorporating fuzzy evaluation of application conditions, such as by using a moving average of CPU utilization or by omitting statistical outliers from evaluation. Other definitions, thresholds, and behaviors described above may be refined further depending upon the specific scenario. Such refinements are beyond the scope of this brief study.

### Collecting Diagnostic Information

When prolonged high CPU utilization occurs, the high-level question on the user's mind is: WHAT THE HECK IS MY COMPUTER DOINGGGGGG????!!

And to answer this question, we can investigate where the application is spending its time. Which, incidentally, is available to us through exposed OS APIs.

To address where the application is spending its time, two pieces of information are relevant:
1. What threads are consuming the greatest degree of CPU resources, and
2. What instructions are being executed in each thread?
This information may allow engineers to identify which threads and subroutines or basic blocks are consuming the most significant CPU resources. In order to obtain this information, an automated diagnostic application must first enumerate and identify running threads. Because threads may be created and destroyed at any time, the diagnostic application must continually obtain the list of threads and then collect CPU utilization and instruction pointer values per thread. The result may be that threads appear and disappear throughout the timeline of the diagnostic data.

Ideally, output would be to a binary or XML file that could be loaded into a user interface for coherent display and browsing of data. In this study and the associated PoC, information will be collected over a fixed number of iterations (i.e. 100 samples) and displayed on the console before terminating.

For purposes of better understanding the origin of each thread, it can be useful to obtain module information and determine whether the thread entry point falls within the base and end address of any module. If it does, then slightly more informational name information, such as modname.dll+0xNNNN, can be displayed. Note that I said slightly more informational. Sometimes this just points to a C runtime thread start stub. But it's still worth having.

In the PoC, data is displayed by sorting the application's threads by percent utilization and displaying the most significant offenders last. Figure 4 shows threads from a legacy SysInternals CPU load simulation tool, CPUSTRES.EXE, sorted in order of CPU utilization.

 Fig. 4: Threads sorted in ascending order of CPU utilization

Although this answers the high-level question of what the program is doing (i.e., executing the thread whose start routine is located at CPUSTRES.EXE+0x1D7B in two separate threads), it does not indicate specifically what part of each routine is executing at a given time.

• Execution tracing
• Instruction pointer sampling
Execution tracing can be implemented to observe detailed instruction execution by using either single-stepping via Windows debug APIs or by making use of processor-specific tracing facilities. Instruction pointer sampling on the other hand can be implemented quickly, albeit at a cost to diagnostic detail. Even so, this method offers improved performance since single-stepping is ssssllllloooowwwwwwwwwwww.

This PoC (inspect.cpp) implements instruction pointer sampling by suspending each thread with the SuspendThread() function and obtaining the control portion of the associated thread context via the GetThreadContext() function. Figure 5 depicts the PoC enumerating instruction pointers for several threads within taskmgr.exe. Notably, thread 3996 is executing a different instruction in sample 7 than it is in sample 8, whereas most threads in the output remain at the same instruction pointer across various samples, perhaps waiting on blocking Windows API calls.

 Fig. 5: Instruction pointer for thread 3996

This information can provide limited additional context as to what the application is doing. More useful information might include a stack trace (provided frame pointers are not omitted for anti-reverse engineering or optimization reasons).

## Conclusion

It's nice to be able to identify and collect information about events like this. But CPU utilization is only one part of the problem, and there are other ways of detecting UI latency than measuring per-process statistics. Also, what of inherent instrumentation available for collecting diagnostic information? What of kernrate, which was mentioned in Windows Internals book and is covered here. It looks as if this can be used instead of custom diagnostics, as long as there are sufficient CPU resources to launch it (either via starting a new process or by invoking the APIs that it uses to initiate logging). Would kernrate.exe (or the underlying APIs) suffer too much resource starvation to be useful in the automatically detected conditions I outlined above? In addition to this, what ETW information might give us a better glimpse into what is happening when a system becomes frustratingly unresponsive?

These are the questions I want to dig into to arrive at a fully automated system for pinpointing the reasons slowness and arriving at human-readable explanations for what is happening.

## Wednesday, April 19, 2017

### Troubleshooting Netfilter

I'm developing a Linux "Diverter" to handle packets for FakeNet-NG, and I've run into some mind-bending issues. Here is a fun one.

I needed to make FakeNet-NG respond when clients use it as their gateway to talk to arbitrary IP addresses. This is done easily enough:

iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -j REDIRECT

At the same time, I needed to make it possible for clients asking for arbitrary ports (where no service was bound), to be redirected to a dummy service. And I needed to write pcaps, produce logging, and allow other on-the-fly decisions to be made. This I did using python-netfilterqueue and dpkt to mangle port numbers on the way in, fix them on the way out, and recalculate checksums as necessary.

These solutions each worked great. But as I learned while demonstrating this functionality, they just didn't work at the same time:

root@ubuntu:/home/mykill# echo fdsa | nc -v 5.5.5.5 45678
nc: connect to 5.5.5.5 port 45678 (tcp) failed: Connection timed out

I compared pcaps from successful and unsuccessful conversations between the client system and an arbitrary IP address (say, 5.5.5.5). In successful cases (where my packet mangling code was inactive), the FakeNet system responded with whatever IP the client asked to talk to, and the two systems successfully finished the TCP three-way handshake necessary to establish a connection and exchange information. But when my packet mangling code was active, the FakeNet system responded with a SYN/ACK erroneously bearing its own IP address, and the client responded with an RST.

 RST is TCP-ese for "Sit down, I wasn't even talking to you."

This behavior led me to the suspicion that my packet mangling activity was preventing the system from recognizing and fixing up response packets so that their IP addresses would match the IP address of the incoming packet (say, 5.5.5.5).

To investigate this, I started by looking at net/netfilter/xt_REDIRECT.c with the goal of learning whether the kernel was using things like the TCP port numbers I was mangling to try to keep track of what packets to fix up. I found that in the case of IPv4, redirect_tg4() calls nf_nat_redirect_ipv4() in nf_nat_redirect.c which unconditionally accesses conntrack information in the skb (short for socket buffer, i.e. the packet), finally calling nf_nat_setup_info() in nf_nat_core.c. The latter function manipulates the destination IP address and calculates a "tuple" and "inverse tuple" that will be used to identify corresponding packets by their endpoint (and other protocol characteristics) and fix up any fields that were mangled by the NAT logic.

I was surprised conntrack was involved because I hadn't needed to use the -m conntrack argument to implement redirection. To confirm what I was seeing, I used lsmod to peek at the dependencies among Netfilter modules. Sure enough, I found that xt_REDIRECT.ko (which implements the REDIRECT target in my iptables rule) relies on nf_nat.ko, which itself relies on nf_conntrack.ko.

I still didn't have the full picture, but it seemed more and more like I was on to something. Perhaps the system was calculating a "tuple" based on the TCP destination port of the incoming packet, my code was modifying the TCP destination port, and then the system was getting a whack at the response packet before I had a chance to fix up its TCP source port to something that would result in a match.

I wanted to figure out when the REDIRECT logic was executing versus when my own logic was executing so I could confirm that hypothesis. While I puzzled over this, I happened upon some relevant documentation that led me to believe I might be correct about the use of TCP ports (rather than, say, socket ownership) to track connections:

 Yeah dummy. It's the port.

This documentation also answered my question of when the NAT tuple calculations occur:
Connection tracking hooks into high-priority NF_IP_LOCAL_OUT and NF_IP_PRE_ROUTING hooks, in order to see packets before they enter the system.
These chains were consistent with the registration structures in xt_REDIRECT.c, which further indicated that the hooks were specific to the nat table (naturally):

static struct xt_target redirect_tg_reg[] __read_mostly = {
.
.
.
{
.name       = "REDIRECT",
.family     = NFPROTO_IPV4,
.revision   = 0,
.table      = "nat",
.target     = redirect_tg4,
.checkentry = redirect_tg4_check,
.targetsize = sizeof(struct nf_nat_ipv4_multi_range_compat),
.hooks      = (1 << NF_INET_PRE_ROUTING) |
(1 << NF_INET_LOCAL_OUT),
.me         = THIS_MODULE,
},
};

At this point, I really wanted a way to beat Netfilter's OUTPUT/nat hook to the punch. I needed to fix up the source port of the response packet and see if I could induce Netfilter to calculate correct inverse-tuples and fix up the source IPs in my response packets again. But the documentation says Netfilter implements its connection tracking using high-priority hooks in the NF_IP_LOCAL_OUT and NF_IP_PRE_ROUTING chains. That sounds a lot like Netfilter gets first dibs. I sat in uffish thought until I remembered this very detailed diagram (click to enlarge):

 You are here. No, wait.

If this graphic was correct, I was about to get in before Netfilter -- by changing my fix-up hook to run in the OUTPUT/raw chain and table. I gave it a shot, and...

root@ubuntu:/home/mykill# echo asdf | nc -v 5.5.5.5 9999
Connection to 5.5.5.5 9999 port [tcp/*] succeeded!
asdf

VICTORY!

It was a hard-fought battle, but I actually was able to confirm my suspicions thanks to the very readable code in the Netfilter portion of the kernel and some very helpful documentation. It's fun to be working on Linux again!

## Friday, February 3, 2017

### Remember the Registers (or, the ABCs of x86)

I have a friend who is about to learn assembly language on x86. This means understanding how processor registers are used. So, I'm sharing some mnemonics for remembering the registers and their roles on x86. Maybe they will help you, too.

A register, by the way, is just a memory location that is directly (and quickly!) accessible by the processor, usually located in the processor circuitry as opposed to being accessible at a memory address (although this depends on the hardware).

 Oh. Okay, so not one of these. Got it.

I'll completely omit floating point (and MMX/SSE) stuff, but I'll briefly mention amd64 for the sake of example.

## A, B, C, and D

There are four general purpose registers whose names are basically A, B, C, and D. On old 16-bit Intel processors, they were named AX, BX, CX, and DX. From each of these, you could also access the low eight bits (e.g. AL, as in "A low") and the high eight bits (e.g. AH, as in "A high"), and you still can.

When 32-bit came along, they prefixed them all with an E (meaning "extended"), so now they are EAX, EBX, ECX, and EDX.

And when AMD devised their derivative amd64 architecture, they prefixed them all with an R, presumably meaning "really-friggin'-extended". So, on amd64, they are named RAX, RBX, RCX, and RDX.

The "A" register has a few special roles, but most importantly it is used to hold the return value (i.e. the result) when functions return to their callers.

The "C" register sometimes has a special role, too, that I'll describe next.

So much for A, B, C, and D.

## String

Several string instructions (e.g. cmps and movs, stos, lods) have implied operands:
• ESI = Source
• EDI = Destination
• ECX = Counter
• EAX = Value to write (sometimes applicable, sometimes not)

## Stack

The stack starts at a high address in memory and as things are added to it, it grows down to lower addresses. The processor keeps track with a stack pointer, and then functions can further use a "base" pointer to point to the boundary between the caller's stack (and two other pieces of data), and their own local variables.
• ESP = Stack Pointer
• EBP = Base Pointer

## Instruction Pointer

So special that it's all alone under its own heading:
• EIP = Instruction Pointer
This register points to the instruction that is about to be executed.

## Extra Credit: Segment Registers

Remember in Windows 95 when blue screens used to report "CS:EIP = xxxxxxx"? Neither do I, let's pretend I didn't admit that. Anyway, that CS is a segment selector indicating the location of the code segment. Modern operating systems use a flat model, so they're mostly set the same.

• CS = Code Segment
• DS = Data Segment
• ES = "Extra" Segment (meh)
• SS = Stack Segment
• FS & GS = Even more extra segments, using the letters that follow C, D, and E, namely F and G Segments
These registers are 16 bits long and contain integers called segment descriptors; the CPU reads the Global or the Local Descriptor Table (the GDT or the LDT) to find the base address and size of each memory segment indicated by those descriptors. Operating systems commonly use a "flat" model instead of a segmented model, so these may all contain the same value. Since segmentation is largely a non-issue now, the extra segment registers are sometimes used to point to interesting structures. For example: FS => Thread Environment Block (TEB) in userspace Windows 32-bit applications.

## Summary

In review:

• EAX, EBX, ECX, EDX = A, B, C, D; Note that the 'A' register holds function return values
• ESI, EDI = Source, Destination (for string operations) - ECX may be the counter and EAX may used, too.
• ESP, EBP = Stack Pointer, Base Pointer
• EIP = Instruction Pointer
• CS, DS, SS, ES, FS, GS = Code, Data, Stack, and Extra segments, followed by F and G Segments

For the authoritative reference on all of this, see the Intel processor manuals.

Happy hackin' :)